Within the framework of India-Japan Vision 2025, the political leadership has designed an “action-oriented partnership”, which, among diverse things, instructed defence technology cooperation including co-development and co-production. India’s aim is to benefit from Japan’s technological prowess in its pursuit of defence modernisation and diversifying its sources of acquisition. And Japan’s aim is to revive its waning defence change merely therefore of the actuality it comes out of the decades-old export ban by means of technique of enticing in international joint pattern and production projects. It is helpful for Japan to convey out international joint pattern projects, it is helpful to sustaining its own defence production and technology base as outlined in the June 2014 Strategy on Defence Production and Technological Bases. In this regard, the Strategy refers to fostering cooperation with India as properly as with the US, European countries including UK and France, Australia and Southeast Asian nations.3
Accordingly, defence and security cooperation has been identified merely therefore of the actuality the best out of five priority elements for conceiving “new signature projects”.4 Japan has been recognized as a “privileged partner”5 in the Make in India energy and the leadership of the five hundred countries has professed defence technology cooperation as having the energy to “emerge as a key pillar of bilateral defence relations”.6 The Agreement Concerning Transfer of Defence Equipment and Technology Cooperation and the Agreement Concerning Security Measures for the Protection of Classified Military Information have been signed in December 2015, redefining the range for defence cooperation and paving the methodology for joint research, pattern and/or production projects.
Defence and security cooperation constitutes a coronary center diploma of the India-Japan Special Strategic Partnership. Since the 2008 Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation, bilateral cooperation has revolved spherical severe diploma defence exchanges and the expanding scope and complexity of joint bodily sports occasions including anti-submarine warfare, mine counter-measures, counter-terrorism, and so on. While strong maritime cooperation constitutes the mainstay of India-Japan security cooperation in bilateral, trilateral and multilateral frameworks, trade in defence instruments and technology by means of technique of methodology of joint research, co-development and co-production is a actually new area. With the aim of assisting instruments collaboration with defence and dual-use technologies among the governments and defence industries as properly as among businesses, the India-Japan Defence Industry Forum was instituted in 2017,7 drawing upon the efforts of Japan’s Acquisition, Technology and Logistical Agency (ATLA) and India’s Department of Defence Production (DDP). Demonstrating bilateral commitment, India and Japan unveiled a new chapter in defence cooperation with their maiden venture - Cooperative Research in the Area of Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV)/Robotics - agreed to by means of technique of the five hundred defence ministries in July 2018. Following the bilateral agreement on defence instruments and technology, technical discussion involving ATLA and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) intensified and culminated in the important cooperative read venture at the Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation Technology for UGV/robotics.8
In the run as a lot merely therefore of the actuality the Defence Ministerial Dialogue held past this month, the fourth Joint Working Group on Defence Equipment and Technology Cooperation (JWG-DETC) was hosted in July with the aim of picking real gifts and elements for cooperation in joint pattern and production. The JWG-DETC was instituted in February 2015, following the landmark shift in Japan’s hands export policy referred to earlier.9 Prime Minister Modi has inspired Japan to convey out Project 75(I) which seeks to collaboratively build six diesel-electric submarines with air-independent propulsion (AIP) power for the Indian Navy. The Navy issued a request-for-information (RFI) in July 2017 to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, manufacturers of the ultra-quiet Soryu beauty submarine, as properly as to diverse international manufacturers including ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, Naval Group, Navantia, Saab and Rubin Design Bureau-Amur Shipyard. However, these five hundred Japanese companies have refrained from responding to the RFI perhaps merely therefore of the actuality of Japan’s journey with the long and hard negotiations concerning the based Utility Seaplane Mark 2 (US-2) amphibian aircraft, manufactured by means of technique of ShinMaywa Industries.
Thus, while vast agreement at the political leadership diploma has been easier to achieve, negotiations concerning defence instruments and technology cooperation have proved to be incredibly difficult, shaped as these are by means of technique of a fancy interplay of severe variables like cost-competitiveness, technology transfer and residence politics. India’s quest of defence modernisation and diversifying its acquisition sources present opportunities for Japanese defence industry, which, past to 2014, focused absolutely at the residence market given the value of tsutsushimu,10 entailing restrictions on hands transfers which barred Japan from entering the international defence market and enticing in joint pattern and production of arms. But navigating India’s opaque defence procurement11 and offset ideas is a vast venture for Japan, it is actually new to the fiercely competitive international defence market. Further, in cost-sensitive markets like India, policymakers are guided by means of technique of variables similar to cost-competitiveness, technology transfer, putting up of a manufacturing base in the country, and activity creation. But these determinants ought to now now no longer unique to India. Japan’s attempt to sell its 4,000-ton Soryu-class diesel-electric attack stealth submarine to Australia, despite Abe’s observed diplomatic campaign, also failed merely therefore of the actuality of only a couple of of these variables apart from to Canberra’s technical and military priorities. Even after Tony Abbott’s departure and his successor’s answer to open up the deal for bidding, Japan refused to compete merely therefore of the actuality of its hesitation to share technology12 and aversion to build the submarines in Adelaide.13
India is absolutely interested in sourcing the US-2 amphibian aircraft, which might be super for patrolling the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and for conducting search and rescue operations in the Indian Ocean. But concluding the important defence instruments cooperation with Japan underneath the Make in India initiative by means of technique of the use of government to government route has proved hard merely therefore of the actuality of the complexities of pricing, offset clause and technology transfer. Thus, despite the MoU signed among Mahindra Defence and Shinmaywa Industries in April 2018, the click on statement issued after the latest meeting among Defence Minister Sitharaman and her Japanese counterpart Itsunori Onodera refrained from updating the status of the imminent deal.
Meanwhile, the vendor lobbies in both countries have argued in favour of fostering high-technology cooperation. SIPRI news shows that India has emerged merely therefore of the actuality the properly proper importer of important hands among 2012 and 2016, accounting for 13 per cent of the international total. The India-Japan Business Leaders Forum has typically underscored the want for strong engagement in “high-technology elements in the defence and security sectors”.14 And, the Japan Business Federation or Keidanren has prioritised India, until the US, Europe and Southeast Asia, while enunciating the importance of promoting instruments and technology cooperation with international countries.15 Japanese defence enterprises visited India in August 2018 following up at the maiden India-Japan Defence Industry Forum hosted in Tokyo last September to pursue cooperation in high-technology items.
Japan has projected success stories for Make in India in diverse sectors with the Suzuki-Toshiba-Denso joint vendor for automotive lithium-ion battery packs aimed at the residence and international markets and Made-in-India Suzuki Baleno export to the international market. But in the defence sector international companies will ought to be incentivised to set up defence manufacturing bases in India. India is doing vendor with the US, Russia, Israel and others for a while but Japan is a actually new partner. Both sides want to invest more energy in rising a strong figuring out about each other’s defence sector, and cling the cultural adjustments and find prospects for fate cooperation. Cultural sensitivities are very helpful while dealing with Japan. For Japan, defence instruments and technology cooperation is more than merely hands trade. It is a very important diploma in Prime Minister Abe’s upper security conceptualization of Japan’s Proactive Contribution to Peace.
It might be very helpful to phrase that a revised hands export policy in itself is no longer sufficient to sell defence cooperation. Despite a strong civilian manufacturing base and being a repository of dual-use technology, cost-competitiveness and relative inexperience in international hands market are a important venture confronting the Japanese defence industry. The venture of cost-competitiveness might be traced back to the structural constrains imposed at the Japanese defence change owing to the prohibition of hands exports, making it very diverse from its US and European counterparts.16 To dwell competitive, US and European companies have restructured with mergers and acquisitions as properly as joint ventures aimed towards achieving more severe effective efficiency. In contrast, for the Japanese defence industry, the Self-Defence Forces have been the one consumer for decades. And as the quantum of the defence ministry’s procurement diploma is small, the value of producing the instruments becomes severe and translates into low gross income for the contractors. Limitations on hands export have curtailed the prospects of achieving more favourable economies of scale.
The 2015 Agreement on Defence Equipment and Technology Cooperation elevated the strategic partnership to newer heights as India and Japan began technical discussions at the prospects of instruments and technology cooperation. Japan has reportedly faded the rate from US$ 133 million to 113 per US-2 following severe negotiations. Moving ahead cost-competitiveness will possible be key for Japan merely therefore of the actuality it goals markets like Southeast Asia and India. The focus in the immediate term is possible to be on international joint pattern and production, and export of small gifts as an option of vast ticket gifts like submarines. In this regard, India ought to trust Japanese surveillance radars, communications, and electronic warfare technologies, etc. While India traverses the challenges linked with indigenous production, refining the investment setting, allowing defence manufacturers to take up technology transfer by means of technique of the use of offsets, Japan faces the litmus test of building its defence change competitive and globalised.
Views expressed are of the creator and do no longer necessarily reflect the views of the IDSA or of the Government of India.
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